Unit 4 - Exponents & Equations (8th Grade)

Students will explore and understand that there are numbers that are not rational, called irrational numbers, and will approximate their value by using rational numbers. A clear understanding of irrational numbers will be demonstrated using models, number lines, and expressions of estimates and approximations. Students will work with radicals and express very large and very small numbers using integer exponents.

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**MGSE8.EE.1** Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3(–5) = 3(–3) = 3 1 3 = 27 1 .

**MGSE8.EE.2** Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations. Recognize that x2 = p (where p is a positive rational number and lxl < 25) has 2 solutions and x3 = p (where p is a negative or positive rational number and lxl < 10) has one solution. Evaluate square roots of perfect squares < 625 and cube roots of perfect cubes > -1000 and < 1000.

**MGSE8.EE.3** Use numbers expressed in scientific notation to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 108 and the population of the world as 7 × 109 , and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

**MGSE8.EE.4** Add, subtract, multiply and divide numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Understand scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g. use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology (e.g. calculators).

**MGSE8.EE.7** Solve linear equations in one variable.

**MGSE8.EE.7a.** Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

**MGSE8.EE.7b.** Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

**MGSE8.NS.1** Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.

**MGSE8.NS.2** Use rational approximation of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., estimate π2 to the nearest tenth). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of √2 (square root of 2), show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations.